Vascular plant communities of Spain and Portugal. Addenda to the Syntaxonomical checklist of 2001

Salvador Rivas-Martínez, Tomás E. Díaz, Federico Fernández-González, Jesús Izco, Javier Loidi, Mario Lousã & Ángel Penas

Itinera Geobotanica 15(1-2): 5-922 (2002)

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2. Syntaxon descriptions

Bartramio strictae-Polypodienion cambrici (O. Bolòs & Vives 1957) suball. nova hoc loco, stat. nov. (30.1b)

[Sedo cepaeae-Polypodienion serrulati M.B. Crespo in Ecol. Medit. 19: 6. 1993 (art. 27), Pterogonio gracilis-Polypodienion vulgaris M.B. Crespo in Ecol. Medit. 19: 8. 1993 (art. 27)]
(Polypodion cambrici, Anomodonto-Polypodietalia, Anomodonto-Polypodietea)

Typus suballiancia (holotypus): Sedo-Polypodietum serrati O. Bolòs & Vives in Collect. Bot. (Barcelona) 5(2): 533. 1957.

Characteristic species (dif. suball.): Sedum cepaea L., Bartramia stricta Brid., Exormotheca pustulosa Mitt., Sedum hirsutum All., Targionia hypophylla L., Hylotelephium maximum (L.) Holub in Severŏces.

Diagnosis: Epiphitic and comophytic shaded communities of rhizomatous ferns (mostly Polypodium cambricum), bryophytes and seed plants of rainy Temperate and Mediterranean oceanic territories, growing on nutrient-poor substrata.

This new suballiance is included in the alliance Polypodion serrati Br.-Bl. in Br.-Bl., Roussine & Nègre, Group. Vég. France Médit. 1952 (Polypodion cambrici (30.1) nom. mut. propos.). At the same time by the art. 28 (CPN 2000) a second suballiance that contains the original diagnosis of the alliance and the nomenclatural type must be denominated - and since 1.1.1979 the name of the second suballiance that includes the type must be formed solely by altering the rank-indicating termination - consequently: 30.1a. Polypodienion cambrici (serrati) suball. nova, that correspond to the nutrient-rich substrata communities of the same territory and environmental conditions.


Beto maritimae-Lavateretum arboreae ass. nova hoc loco (34.4.6 = 37.4.2)

(Dauco-Melilotion, Artemisietalia vulgaris, Artemisietea vulgaris)

Typus associatio: Table 13, rel. 2 [Asturias: Cudillero, Islote de Grados. 29TQJ2230. 0-10 m, 10 m²].

Characteristic species (territorials): Lavatera arborea, Beta maritima, Matricaria maritima.

Diagnosis: Community of Lavatera arborea and Beta maritima growing on soils with great accumulation of marine birds" droppings, and whose optimum is in littoral Cantabrian-Atlantic areas scarcely visited by men, mainly in the rocky isles. Besides the nitrohalophilous and halophilous plants common in the cliffs, in these communities there are nitrophilous species from non-saline environments. The Cantabrian-Atlantic association Beto-Lavateretum arboreae can be in contact with the communities of Crithmo-Armerion maritimae, with the aerohaline heaths of the Dactylido maritimae-Ulicion maritimi and not too far of the chasmophyte nitrophilous aerohalitic marine forb communities of Brassicion oleraceae (Parietarietea).

Table 13

34.4.6 Beto maritimae-Lavateretum arboreae
(Dauco-Melilotion, Artemisietalia vulgaris, Artemisietea vulgaris)

Altitude (1=10 m)0-10-10-10-1
Number of species713910
Ordinal number12*34
Characteristic species:
Lavatera arborea4353
Beta maritima+223
Matricaria maritima12.2
Atriplex prostrata11.2
Urtica membranacea..11
Companion species:
Crithmum maritimum++.2
Armeria depilata++.2
Spergularia rupicola21.2

Other species. Companion species: Daucus gummifer 1 in 2 and 3. Festuca pruinosa + in 2, 1 in 3. Inula crithmoides + in 2, 1 in 3. Polygonum aviculare + in 2, 1 in 3. Sonchus oleraceus + in 2, 1 in 3. Trifolium occidentale + in 2, 1 in 3.

Localities: 1, 2. Asturias: Cudillero, Islote de Grados. 29TQJ2230. 10 m². Holotypus ass. rél 2. 3. Asturias: Llanes, Castro de San Martín. 30TUP5410. 10 m². 4. Synthesized table.

[Arbesú, Bueno & F. Prieto]

Betulo pendulae-Populetalia tremulae Rivas-Martínez & Costa ordo novus hoc loco (76d)

[Betulo pendulae-Populetalia tremulae Rivas-Martínez & Costa in Acta Bot. Barcinon. 45: 489. 1998 (art. 8)]

Typus ordo: Corylo-Populion tremulae (Br.-Bl. ex O. Bolòs 1973) Rivas-Martínez & Costa in Acta Bot. Barcinon. 45: 489. 1998 (76.12) [Corylo-Populion tremulae Br.-Bl. in Geobot. Selecta 1: 68. 1961 (art. 2b, 8) typus: Pruno brigantiacae-Populetum tremulae Br.-Bl. in Geobot. Selecta 1: 68. 1961 (art. 2b, 7), Corylo-Populenion tremulae Br.-Bl. ex O. Bolòs in Pirineos 108: 82. 1973, holotypus: Hepatico-Coryletum Br.-Bl. in Br.-Bl., Roussine & Nègre, Group. Vég. France Médit.: 256. 1952].

Characteristic species: Betula pendula, Corylus avellana, Populus tremula, Salix caprea, Sorbus aucuparia, Sorbus intermedia.

Diagnosis: Oceanic and subcontinental temperate and boreal, meso to lower orotemperate and thermo to mesoboreal, humid to ultrahyperhumid, deciduous light wood natural or secondary forest of deciduous hardwood and conifer climactic forest (Querco-Fagetea, Vaccinio-Piceetea, Junipero-Pinetea), growing on acid or neutral soils and distributed throughout European Eurosiberian Region, and also in the humid or hyperhumid supra and orotemperate thermoclimatic belts of submediterranean mountains of Western Mediterranean Subregion.

Remarks: In the Iberian Peninsula three alliances with different ecological requirements and distribution can be recognized: 76.12. Corylo-Populion tremulae, supra to lower orotemperate and thermo to mesoboreal, from the Pyrenees to Scandinavia and Russia, characterized by Betula pendula (typus: Hepatico-Coryletum Br.-Bl. in Br.-Bl.; Roussine & Nègre 1952); 76.13. Betulion carpatico-pubescentis all. nova hoc loco chionophilous, hygrophilous and orophilous, orotemperate birch forest, of Alpine-Caucasian mountain territories, characterized by Betula pubescens and Betula carpatica (typus: Betuletum pubescenti-carpaticae Rivas-Martínez & Costa in Acta Bot. Barcinon. 45: 485. 1998); 76.14. Betulion fontqueri-celtibericae all. nova hoc loco, supra and orotemperate, primary chionophilous and secondary birch forest, endemic of the temperate and submediterranean mountains of the Iberian Peninsula (excl. Pyrenees), characterized by Betula fontqueri subsp. fontqueri and Betula celtiberica (typus: Luzulo cantabricae-Betuletum celtibericae Rivas-Martínez in Anales Inst. Bot. Cavanilles 22: 380. 1965). Finally, on the oceanic upper supratemperate humid to ultrahyperhumid sandy coast of the North Sea and in the oceanic boreal territories of West Scandinavia, a fourth new alliance: Betulion tortuosae, characterized by Betula tortuosa, could be recognized as climactical in the rainy areas as well as seral in the dryer zones (typus: Corno suecicae-Betuletum tortuosae Aune 1973).

Corylo-Populion tremulae (Br.-Bl. ex O. Bolòs 1973) Rivas-Martínez & Costa 1998 (76.12)

[Corylo-Populion tremulae Br.-Bl. in Geobot. Selecta 1: 68. 1961 (art. 2b, 8), Corylo-Populenion tremulae Br.-Bl. ex O. Bolòs in Pirineos 108: 82. 1973 (76.12a) (corresp. name), Pulmonario affinis-Betulenion pendulae Rivas-Martínez, Fernández-González, Loidi, Lousã & Penas in Itinera Geobot. 14: 183. 2001 (76.12b) (art. 2b)]

Typus alliancia: Hepatico-Coryletum Br.-Bl. in Br.-Bl., Roussine & Nègre, Group. Vég. France Médit.: 256. 1952.

Characteristic species: Betula pendula var. pendula, Betula pendula var. meridionalis, Betula xaschersoniana (Betula pendula x Betula pubescens).

Diagnosis: Deciduous seral secondary forests and woodlands of Betula pendula, Corylus avellana and Populus tremula, spread in oceanic to subcontinental temperate meso- to lower orotemperate humid to hyperhumid, from the Pyrenees to Scandinavia and Russia (Eurosiberian Region).

Actaeo spicatae-Coryletum avellanae Carreras & Ninot in Carrillo & Ninot in Arxius Secc. Ci. Inst. Estud. Catalans 99(2): 127. 1992 (76.12.1)

[Scillo-Fagetum actaeo-coryletosum Carreras & Ninot in Collect. Bot. (Barcelona) 16(2): 408, tb. 1. 1986 (art. 13), Actaeo spicatae-Coryletum avellanae Carreras & Ninot in Carreras 1985 nom. inval. (art. 1)]

Distribution: Inner Pyrenean upper supratemperate hyperhumid mesophytic.

Fragario vescae-Populetum tremulae O. Bolòs in Doc. Phytosoc. 4: 73, tb. 2. 1979 (76.12.3)

Distribution: Eastern Pyrenean (Montsenian-Gironian) supratemperate humid mesic.

Hepatico nobilis-Coryletum avellanae Br.-Bl. in Br.-Bl., Roussine & Nègre, Group. Vég. France Médit.: 256. 1952 (76.12.4)

Distribution: Broad Pyrenean meso-supratemperate humid mesophytic.

Pulmonario affinis-Betuletum pendulae Vigo ass. nova hoc loco (76.12.5)

[Veronico urticifoliae-Betuletum pendulae Vigo in Collect. Bot. (Barcelona) 15: 460, tb. 1. 1984 p.p. excl. holotypus (tb. 1, inv. 1), Veronico urticifoliae-Betuletum pendulae pinetosum sylvestris Vigo in Carreras, Carrillo, X. Font, Ninot, I. Soriano & Vigo 1995 (art. 5)]

Typus associatio: Table 14, rel. 2 [Huesca: Benasque, Ball de Cregüeña. 42º39'N-0º35'E. 1520 m, SE, 30%, 100 m2].

Characteristic species (territorials): Betula pendula, Betula xaschersoniana, Populus tremula, Salix caprea, Pulmonaria affinis.

Diagnosis: Pyrenean secondary meso-microforests of Betula pendula, Betula pendula var. meridionalis, Populus tremula and Salix caprea, substituting the meso-macroforests meso-supratemperate humid and hyperhumid of Abies alba (Goodyero-Abietetum, Pulmonario affinis-Abietetum), Fagus sylvatica (Scillo-Fagetum, Roso pendulinae-Fagetum, Luzulo niveae-Fagetum, etc.) and Pinus sylvestris (var. pyrenaica et var. catalaunica) (Pinetum uncinato-pyrenaicae, Veronico-Pinetum catalaunicae, etc.) after their destruction.

Table 14

76.12.5 Pulmonario affinis-Betuletum pendulae
(Corylo-Populion tremulae, Betulo-Populetalia tremulae, Querco-Fagetea)

Altitude (1=10m)144152143160124148166148
Number of species1818192423232522
Ordinal number12*345678
Characteristic species (territorials):
Betula pendula3342234V
Corylus avellana23123++V
Pulmonaria affinis2211+12V
Fragaria vesca1311212V
Salix caprea122+.11V
Populus tremula32+3.1.IV
Sorbus aucuparia..2.131III
Sorbus intermedia. +2...II
Betula xaschersoniana.....11II
Characteristic species (class):
Poa nemoralis13++1.1IV
Fraxinus excelsior2.++.2 III
Quercus petraea++1.2..III
Abies alba (S2)+12...+III
Anemone hepatica.1.+.+1III
Hieracium lachenalii2...+.1II
Stellaria holostea.2.+.+.II
Festuca heterophylla....212II
Companion species:
Rubus idaeus221..12IV
Solidago virgaurea1.1.2..II
Sambucus racemosa.....21II

Other species. Characteristic species: Brachypodium sylvaticum 2 in 1 and 2. Agropyrum caninum 2 in 1, 1 in 3. Chamaespartium sagittatum 1 in 1 and 5. Quercus petraea x Quercus pubescens + in 2 and 5. Viola reichenbachiana 1 in 2, 2 in 7. Lonicera xylosteum + in 4, 1 in 5. Lapsana communis 1 in 5, 2 in 6. Veronica officinalis 1 in 5 and 7. Prenanthes purpurea 1 in 6, + in 7. Fagus sylvatica (E2) + in 6, 2 in 7. Buxus sempervirens 1, Scrophularia alpestris + in 2. Calamagrostis arundinacea +, Epipactis atrorubens +, Pyrola secunda + in 3. Cicerbita muralis 2, Lathyrus occidentalis 1, Amelanchier ovalis +, Aquilegia vulgaris +, Digitalis lutea +, Polygonatum verticillatum +, Ribes alpinum +, Viburnum lantana +, Vincetoxicum hirundinaria + in 4. Betonica officinalis 2, Acer campestris 1, Lathyrus linifolius 1 in 5. Geranium sylvaticum 2, Rubus scaber 2, Sanicula europaea 1, Vicia sepium 1 in 6. Melica uniflora 2, Carex digitata 1, Galium rotundifolium 1, Daphne laureola + in 7. Companion species: Arabis turrita 1 in 1, + in 4. Pinus sylvestris var. pyrenaica 2 in 1, + in 5. Pinus uncinata + in 2, 1 in 7. Geranium robertianum + in 4, 2 in 6. Stachys alpina 1 in 1. Picris hieracioides + in 2. Festuca scoparia +, Polystichum lonchitis +, Valeriana montana + in 4. Juniperus communis 2, Pteridium aquilinum 2, Melampyrum pratense 1 in 5. Geum urbanum 2, Ranunculus aconitifolius 1 in 6. Deschampsia flexuosa 2, Anthoxanthum odoratum 1 in 7.

Localities: 1. Huesca: Benasque, Plan de Rosec, gully of snow avalanches. W, 25%. 100 m2. 2. Holotypus ass. Huesca: Benasque, Ball de Cregüeña. SE, 30%, 100 m2. 42º39'N-0º35'E. 3. Huesca: Benasque, Plan de Senarta. E, 20%, 150 m2. 4. Huesca: Benasque, Ball de Ballibierna. SW, 35%, 200 m2. 5. Lérida: Valle de Arán, Gausac, Socascarro forest. NE, 30%, 100 m2. 6. Lérida: Valle de Arán, Aubèrt, Baricauva forest. N, 20%, 100 m2. 7. Huesca: Benasque, Ball de Lliterola. E, 25%, 100 m2. 8. Synthesized table.

Betulion carpatico-pubescentis Rivas-Martínez & Costa all. nova hoc loco (76.13)

Typus alliancia: Betuletum pubescenti-carpaticae Rivas-Martínez & Costa in Acta Bot. Barcinon. 45: 485. 1998 [Lérida: Valle de Arán, Artíes, at the bottom of Serra del Montardo, old avalanches cone rocky block chaos close to a fir wood of Rhododendro-Abietetum albae. 42º39'N-0º51"30"'E.]. Characteristic species ass., all. ord.: 3 Betula carpatica, 2 Betula pubescens, 2 Salix caprea, 2 Rubus idaeus, 1 Ribes petraeum, + Ribes alpinum, + Sambucus racemosa. Characteristic species class: 2 Melica nutans, 1 Lonicera xylosteum, 1 Rosa glauca, 1 Viola reichenbachiana, + Agropyron caninus, + Epipactis atrorubens. Companion species: 3 Hylocomium splendens, 3 Valeriana montana, 2 Abies alba (2 m), 2 Anthoxanthum odoratum, 2 Epilobium angustifolium, 2 Fragaria vesca, 2 Rhacomitrium canescens, 2 Rhododendron ferrugineum, 2 Vaccinium myrtillus, 1 Athyrium filix-femina, 1 Calamagrostis arundinacea, 1 Dryopteris oreades, 1 Solidago virgaurea subsp. minuta, + Gymnocarpium dryopteris, + Juniperus nana, + Dryopteris xmantoniae, + Pinus uncinata (1 m), + Polystichum lonchitis, + Pyrola chlorantha.

Characteristic species: Betula carpatica, Betula carpatica x Betula pubescens, Betula pubescens.

Diagnosis: Alpine-Pyrenean orotemperate microforests of Betula pubescens and Betula carpatica with an understory of Rhododendrum ferrugineum and megaforbs, substituting the chionophilous micro-mesoforests of Abies alba (Rhododendro-Abietetum) and Pinus uncinata (Rhododendro-Pinetum uncinatae), or representing also permanent communities of channels, debris cones of avalanches, slopes and shelf feet covered by great frost splitted blocks, etc.

Betuletum pubescenti-carpaticae Rivas-Martínez & Costa in Acta Bot. Barcinon. 45: 485. 1998 (76.13.1)

Distribution: Pyrenean orotemperate hyperhumid in long snowed stony soils.

Lastreo limbospermae-Betuletum pubescentis Rivas-Martínez in Publ. Inst. Biol. Aplicada 45: 101. 1968 nom. mut. (76.13.2)

[Thelypterido-Betuletum pubescentis Rivas-Martínez in Publ. Inst. Biol. Aplicada 45: 101. 1968, holotypus: Rivas-Martínez in Publ. Inst. Biol. Aplicada 44: 23, tb. 4, rel. 26. 1968 (Rhododendro-Pinetum uncinatae betulo-blechnetosum variante de Betula carpatica sub Thelypterido limbospermae-Betuletum (carpaticae) Rivas-Martínez, l.c. pg. 21)]

Distribution: Pyrenean orotemperate hyperhumid in long snowed wet soils.

Betulion fontqueri-celtibericae Rivas-Martínez & Costa all. nova hoc loco (76.14)

Typus alliancia: Luzulo cantabricae-Betuletum celtibericae Rivas-Martínez in Anales Inst. Bot. Cavanilles 22: 380. 1965 [Luzulo henriquesii-Betuletum celtibericae Rivas-Martínez 1965 nom. mut. propos.].

Characteristic species: Betula celtiberica, Betula fontqueri subsp. fontqueri, Betula fontqueri subsp. parvibracteata.

Diagnosis: Iberian orophilous micro-mesoforests of Betula celtiberica, Betula fontqueri subsp. fontqueri or Corylus avellana, growing on acid or neutral soils, representing the climactical potential natural vegetation in the orotemperate hyperhumid and ultrahyperhumid belt, permanent communities on some hydromorphic soils, avalanche channels, etc., as well as secondary forests substituting beech and oak woodlands and seldom very wet Pinus sylvestris var. iberica forests (Ilici-Fagion, Quercion pyrenaicae, Avenello-Pinion ibericae) in temperate humid or hyperhumid bioclimates in the Cantabrian, Iberian and Central ranges and spread to Serra do Gerês. In mediterranean and submediterranean environments these birch forests take refuge in very humid shady slopes and in acid gleyic or histic soils. They are substituted in the Pyrenees by its Eurosiberian geovicariants Corylo-Populion tremulae and Betulion carpatico-pubescentis.

[Rivas-Martínez & Costa]

Holco mollis-Betuletum celtibericae Amigo & M.I. Romero ass. nova hoc loco (76.14.1) (*)

[Holco mollis-Betuletum celtibericae Amigo & M.I. Romero, XIV Jornadas de Fitosociología. Libro de resúmenes: 31. 1994 (art. 2b), Blechno-Quercetum roboris var. de Betula celtiberica sensu Amigo & M.I. Romero in Studia Bot. 17: 47, tb. 1. 1999, Vaccinio myrtilli-Quercetum roboris var. de Betula celtiberica sensu Amigo & M.I. Romero in Studia Bot. 17: 47, tb. 1. 1999]

Typus associatio: Amigo & M.I. Romero in Studia Bot. 17: 41, tb. 1, (holotypus hoc loco rel. 1). 1999. [Lugo: O Saviñao; Vilarreme. 29TPH11. 580 m, 200 m2]. Characteristic species: 5 Betula celtiberica, 2 Hedera helix, 2 Quercus robur (E2), 1 Castanea sativa, 1 Lonicera periclymenum, 1 Teucrium scorodonia, + Holcus mollis. Companion species: 5 Rubus sp., 1 Pteridium aquilinum, + Cirsium filipendulum.

Characteristic species (territorials): Betula celtiberica, Frangula alnus, Salix caprea, Sorbus aucuparia.

Diagnosis: Cantabrian-Atlantic meso-supratemperate humid-hyperhumid forests of Betula celtiberica, substituting the climatophilous oak forests of the Quercenion robori-pyrenaicae.

[Amigo & M.I. Romero] (*)

Laserpitio eliasii-Coryletum avellanae Puente, M.J. López, Penas & F. Salegui ass. nova hoc loco (76.14.2) (*)

Typus associatio: Table 15, rel. 4 [León: Robledo de Caldas. 30TTN6257. 1280 m, N, 20%, 200 m2].

Characteristic species (territorials): Corylus avellana, Crepis lampsanoides, Genista occidentalis, Helleborus occidentalis, Laserpitium nestleri subsp. eliasii, Mercurialis perennis.

Diagnosis: Preforests of the basophilous and xerophilous beech forest Epipactido helleborines-Fagetum sylvaticae laserpitietosum eliasii F.J. Pérez & T.E. Díaz 1987, developed on base rich soils (coming from limestone) on steep, Northern exposed slopes of supratemperate humid Orocantabric territories. By decreasing depth and development of soil, they are in zonation with thickets of Pruno spinosae-Berberidetum cantabricae, and the furze formations of Lithodoro diffusae-Genistetum occidentalis.

In these microforests of Corylus avellana and Crataegus monogyna, they are sometimes accompanied by Sorbus aria, Viburnum lantana and Lonicera xylosteum in the tree-shrub layer; in the herbaceous layer Hepatica nobilis, Mercurialis perennis, Melica uniflora, Milium effusum, Bromus ramosus, Sanicula europaea and Laserpitium nestleri subsp. eliasii, are common or even dominant. The presence of species belonging to Berberidion vulgaris is very important, and they behave as differential against other associations. Floristically, this association can be differentiated from Hepatico-Coryletum because it lacks Pulmonaria affinis, Betula pendula, Buxus sempervirens and Daphne mezereum, among others. It can be differentiated from Polysticho-Coryletum because it lacks Campanula trachelium, Hedera helix and Quercus ilex and it is different from Astrantio majoris-Coryletum because it lacks Hypericum hirsutum, Satureja vulgaris, Salix alba, Campanula trachelium, Berberis hispanica and Acer campestre. It can be differentiated from other formations, in which the hazel is dominant, Luzulo henriquesii-Aceretum pseudoplatani and Omphalodo nitidae-Coryletum avellanae, because it lacks Acer pseudoplatanus, Ilex aquifolium, Quercus petraea, Fraxinus excelsior, Fagus sylvatica, Omphalodes nitida, Saxifraga spathularis and Luzula sylvatica subsp. henriquesii, among others. It is also different from all of them because it has the following species Laserpitium nestleri subsp. eliasii, Lithodora diffusa, Genista occidentalis, Berberis vulgaris subsp. cantabrica and Rhamnus alpina, among others.

Table 15

76.14.2 Laserpitio eliasii-Coryletum avellanae
(Betulion fontqueri-celtibericae, Betulo-Populetalia tremulae, Querco-Fagetea)

Altitude (1=10m)120125130128123125137127
Number of species3637413630362735
Ordinal number1234*5678
Characteristic species:
Corylus avellana4444444V
Hepatica nobilis2222111V
Crataegus monogyna2221111V
Mercurialis perennis2211121V
Melica uniflora2111111V
Stellaria holostea1111111V
Laserpitium eliasii11111++V
Crepis lampsanoides++1+11+V
Milium effusum212121.V
Primula columnae1++++1.V
Sanicula europaea++1+++.V
Helleborus occidentalis11++.11V
Rosa canina++++.+1V
Viola reichenbachiana++++.++V
Polystichum aculeatum.11+12+V
Ranunculus nemorosus++11.+.IV
Daphne laureola.+++12.IV
Lilium martagon.11+.11IV
Melampyrum pratense1111...III
Amelanchier ovalis11++...III
Poa nemoralis11...11III
Pimpinella major11...+1III
Viburnum lantana1.++.1.III
Sorbus aria1.1+..+III
Dryopteris filix-mas.+111..III
Ribes alpinum.+1+.1.III
Companion species:
Bromus ramosus111111.V
Genista occidentalis1++++++V
Lithodora diffusa+++++++V
Polypodium vulgare.+1++2+V

Other species. Characteristic species: Tanacetum corymbosum + in 1, 3 and 7. Anemone nemorosa + in 1, 1 in 5, + in 7. Paris quadrifolia + in 2, 1 in 3, + in 4. Lonicera xylosteum + in 2, 3 and 6. Berberis cantabrica + in 3 and 4, 1 in 5. Rhamnus alpina + in 3, 4 and 6. Euphorbia amygdaloides 2 in 5, 1 in 6 and 7. Pyrus communis + in 1 and 2. Helleborus foetidus + in 1 and 6. Hieracium murorum + in 2 and 6. Galium odoratum + in 2 and 7. Poa chaixii 1 in 3 and 4. Euphorbia hyberna + in 3 and 4. Polygonatum odoratum + in 3 and 4. Moehringia trinervia 1 in 5, + in 6. Sorbus aucuparia +, Symphytum tuberosum + in 1. Epipactis helleborine +, Polygonatum verticillatum + in 3. Hyacinthoides non-scripta 1, Rosa micrantha + in 5. Companion species: Brachypodium rupestre + in 1, 2 and 6, 1 in 5. Prunella grandiflora + in 1, 3, 4 and 6. Geum urbanum + in 1, 1 in 5, + in 7. Cystopteris fragilis + in 2, 3 and 6. Fragaria vesca 1 in 3, + in 4 and 6. Conopodium majus 1 in 1, + in 2. Astrantia major + in 1 and 2. Campanula glomerata + in 1. Geum sylvaticum 2, Campanula hispanica 1, Galium mollugo +, Pentaglottis sempervirens + in 5. Aquilegia vulgaris 1, Sanguisorba minor +, Vicia sepium + in 7.

Localities: 1. León: Solle. 30TUN1760. N, 20%, 200 m2. 2. León: Solle. 30TUN1760. N, 30%, 200 m2. 3. León: Robledo de Caldas. 30TTN6257. N, 20%, 200 m2. 4. Holotypus ass. León: Robledo de Caldas. 30TTN6257. N, 20%, 200 m2. 5. León: Villafeliz de Babia. 30TTN5558. N, 25%, 100 m2. 6. León: Villafeliz de Babia. 30TTN5558. N, 30%, 200 m2. 7. León: Valdeteja. 30TUN0256. N, 10%, 100 m2. 8. Synthesized table.

[Puente, M.J. López, Penas & F. Salegui] (*)

Linario triornithophorae-Coryletum avellanae R. Alonso, Puente, Penas & F. Salegui ass. nova hoc loco (76.14.3) (*)

Typus associatio: Table 16, rel. 2 [León: Boca de Huérgano. 30TUN4259. 1130 m, NW, 25%, 100 m2].

Characteristic species (territorials): Betula celtiberica, Corylus avellana, Genista polygaliphylla, Linaria triornithophora, Vaccinium myrtillus.

Diagnosis: Fast-growing deciduous microforests formed by Corylus avellana, Sorbus aucuparia, Sorbus aria, Quercus petraea (little trees) and Frangula alnus that live in deep, fresh and acid soils in the supratemperate humid-hyperhumid belt of the Altocarrionese Subsector. They constitute the secondary microforests that replace the climactic Orocantabric sessile oak mesoforests of the Linario triornithophorae-Quercetum petraeae. They differ from the Ubinnean and Campurrian-Carrionese association Laserpitio eliasii-Coryletum avellanae by the presence of Linaria triornithophora and Vaccinium myrtillus, and also by the absence of the basophilic taxa Amelanchier ovalis, Rhamnus alpina, Laserpitium nestleri subsp. eliasii, Daphne laureola var. cantabrica, etc. They differ from the Northern Galician-Asturian and Lacian-Ancarensean association Omphalodo nitidae-Coryletum avellanae by the presence of Linaria triornithophora and Helleborus viridis subsp. occidentalis and by the absence of Omphalodes nitida, Acer pseudoplatanus, Saxifraga spathularis and Phyllitis scolopendrium.

Table 16

76.14.3 Linario triornithophorae-Coryletum avellanae
(Betulion fontqueri-celtibericae, Betulo-Populetalia, Querco-Fagetea)

Altitude (1=10m)110113130118
Number of species21283528
Ordinal number12*34
Characteristic species:
Corylus avellana4553
Sorbus aucuparia++13
Quercus petraea (E2)+++3
Stellaria holostea11+3
Linaria triornithophora+++3
Vaccinium myrtillus21.2
Melampyrum pratense1+.2
Sorbus aria++.2
Teucrium scorodonia1.12
Crepis lampsanoides.112
Poa nemoralis.112
Dryopteris filix-mas.++2
Companion species:
Erica arborea11+3
Ribes petraeum+++3

Other species. Characteristic species: Anemone nemorosa 1, Oxalis acetosella 1, Physospermum cornubiense 1, Lonicera periclymenum +, Quercus xrosacea + in 1. Hepatica nobilis 1, Mercurialis perennis 1, Betula celtiberica +, Fagus sylvatica +, Helleborus occidentalis +, Primula columnae + in 2. Melica uniflora 2, Avenella subcantabrica 1, Euphorbia amygdaloides 1, Fraxinus excelsior +, Holcus mollis +, Prunus padus +, Sorbus intermedia +, Veronica chamaedrys + in 3. Companion species: Frangula alnus 1 in 1, + in 2. Genista polygaliphylla 1 in 1, + in 2. Solidago virgaurea + in 1, 1 in 3. Dryopteris oreades +, Orobanche variegata + in 1. Arabis alpina 1, Fragaria vesca 1, Crataegus monogyna +, Dianthus hyssopifolius +, Digitalis parviflora +, Saxifraga continentalis +, Viburnum lantana + in 2. Dactylis glomerata 1, Geranium robertianum 1, Rosa canina 1, Rubus idaeus 1, Anthoxanthum odoratum +, Centaurea nemoralis +, Clinopodium vulgare +, Festuca microphylla +, Galium aparine +, Knautia arvernensis +, Lamium maculatum +, Lapsana communis +, Potentilla micrantha +, Rosa corymbifera +, Silene vulgaris + in 3.

Localities: 1. León: Boca de Huérgano. 30TUN4259. N, 15%, 100 m2. 2. Holotypus ass. León: Boca de Huérgano. 30TUN4259. NW, 25%, 100 m2. 3. León: Barniedo de la Reina, Valle de Valponguero. 30TUN4861. N, 5%, 100 m2. 4. Synthesized table.

[R. Alonso, Puente, Penas & F. Salegui] (*)

Luzulo henriquesii-Betuletum celtibericae Rivas-Martínez 1965 nom. mut. (76.14.4)

[Luzulo cantabricae-Betuletum celtibericae Rivas-Martínez in Anales Inst. Bot. Cavanilles 22: 380. 1965 (art. 45)]

Distribution: Orocantabric uppersupra to lower orotemperate hyperhumid primary and secondary Betula celtiberica mesophytic forest with long snow cover.

Melico uniflorae-Betuletum celtibericae Rivas-Martínez & Mayor ex G. Moreno & G. López in Anales Inst. Bot. Cavanilles 34(2): 442, tb. 1. 1978 (74.14.6)

Distribution: Oroiberian and Carpetan supratemperate humid-hyperhumid mesophytic, but when submediterranean, then on hydric soils.

Omphalodo nitidae-Coryletum avellanae Amigo, G. Azcárate & M.I. Romero in Bot. Helvetica 105, tb. 2. 1994 (76.14.7)

Distribution: West Orocantabric (Ancarensean) upper supratemperate hyperhumid on rich soils.

Salici atrocinereae-Betuletum celtibericae Loidi, Berastegi, Darquistade & García-Mijangos in Lazaroa 18: 170, tb. 1. 1997 (76.14.8)

Distribution: Cantabrian-Atlantic and Orocantabric meso-supratemperate humid on hydric soils.

Salici capreae-Betuletum fontqueri Molero & Rivas-Martínez ass. nova hoc loco (76.14.9) (*)

Typus associatio: Table 17, rel. 1 [Granada: Sierra Nevada, Dílar, Loma de las Corzas, 1680 m, 100 m2].

Characteristic species (territorials): Betula fontqueri subsp. fontqueri, Salix caprea.

Diagnosis: Community of birchs (Betula fontqueri subsp. fontqueri) and goat willows (Salix caprea, Salix xquercifolia), found in a disjunt way in ravines and shady instable slopes in the upper supramediterranean and lower oromediterranean humid belt of Sierra Nevada, substituting the oak, maple and ash forests (Aceri granatensis-Fraxinetum angustifoliae).

Table 17

76.14.9 Salici capreae-Betuletum fontqueri
(Betulion fontqueri-celtibericae, Betulo-Populetalia tremulae, Querco-Fagetea)

Altitude (1=10m)168163180170176171
Number of species242226202724
Ordinal number1*23456
Characteristic species:
Betula fontqueri33444V
Helleborus foetidus++1++V
Salix caprea21+..III
Sorbus aria.11..II
Acer granatense...22II
Quercus pyrenaica...+3II
Salix xquercifolia....+I
Companion species:
Lonicera arborea12212V
Festuca elegans1+212V
Rosa corymbifera+1211V
Cotoneaster granatensis+121.IV
Berberis hispanica121.+IV
Crataegus monogyna12.2+IV
Juniperus hemisphaerica1.231IV
Rosa pouzinii.21+1IV
Ononis aragonensis.21++IV
Doronicum plantagineum1+.+.III
Adenocarpus decorticans+2..+III
Smyrnium perfoliatum+1..2III
Campanula rapunculus+.++.III

Other species. Companion species: Trifolium ochroleucon + in 1 and 2. Cerastium boissieri + in 1 and 3. Cytisus scoparius + in 1 and 5. Quercus rotundifolia 1 in 2, + in 4. Myrrhoides nodosa + in 2 and 5. Dactylis juncinella 1 in 3 and 5. Silene divaricata + in 3 and 4. Aquilegia nevadensis +, Carex camposii +, Malus sylvestris + in 3 and 5. Festuca iberica + in 4, 1 in 5. Lonicera xylosteum 2, Prunus ramburii + in 1. Rubus ulmifolius 1, Pteridium aquilinum + in 2. Polygonatum odoratum 2, Polygala boissieri 1, Anthericum baeticum +, Asphodelus fistulosus +, Paeonia coriacea + in 3. Anthoxanthum odoratum + in 4. Festuca nevadensis 1, Aconitum neapolitanum +, Alliaria petiolata +, Thalictrum foetidum + in 5.

Localities: 1. Holotypus ass. Granada: Sierra Nevada, Dílar, Loma de las Corzas. 100 m2. 2. to 5. Granada: Dúrcal, Sierra Nevada, Barranco de los Alisos. 400 m2. 6. Synthesized table.

[Molero & Rivas-Martínez] (*)

Saxifrago spathularis-Betuletum celtibericae Rivas-Martínez 1981 (76.14.10)

Distribution: Orensan-Sanabriensean and Estrelensean supratemperate and lower orotemperate hyperhumid.

[Rivas-Martínez & Costa]

Callitricho brutiae-Ranunculetum peltati ass. nova hoc loco (3.3.3)

(Ranunculion aquatilis, Potametalia, Potametea)

Typus associatio: Table 18, rel. 1 [Avila: San Bartolomé de Bejar, Sierra de Bejar, La Covatilla. 30TTK7271. 1850 m, 1 m2].

Characteristic species (territorials): Callitriche brutia, Ranunculus peltatus.

Diagnosis: Aquatic batrachid community growing on oligotrophic neutro-acidophilous deep standing cold water characterized by Ranunculus peltatus, spread in temperate and mediterranean siliceous zones of Iberian Peninsula, geovicariant of the Atlantic Central-European Ranunculetum peltati Sauer 1947.

Table 18

3.3.3 Callitricho brutiae-Ranunculetum peltati
(Ranunculion aquatilis, Potametalia, Potametea)

Altitude (1=10m)18593891609098136116180127
Number of species3333465564
Ordinal number1*2345678910
Characteristic species:
Ranunculus peltatus455555354V
Callitriche brutia232332322V
Fontinalis antipyretica1.......3II
Myriophyllum alterniflorum.1...+...II
Ranunculus saniculifolius..2......I
Companion species:
Ranunculus flammula...+.+.1.II
Montia amporitana.....++.1II
Glyceria declinata....11...II

Other species. Companion species: Alisma lanceolatum 1 in 5. Potamogeton polygonifolius +, Ranunculus nodiflorus + in 7. Peplis portula 1, Ranunculus longipes + in 8. Epilobium obscurum 1, Myosotis stolonifera + in 9.

Localities: 1. Holotypus ass. Ávila: Sierra de Béjar, San Bartolomé de Béjar, La Covatilla. 30TTK7271. 1 m2. 2. Madrid: El Escorial, Zarzalejo, Pradejón CREEK. 30TVK0286. 1 m2, water 18 cm, pH=7, T=18ºC. 3. Ávila: Constanzana, 2 km away from Cabizuela. Stagnant water in cereal field. 30TUL4432. 0,3 m2, water 10 cm, T: 20ºC. 4. Madrid: Santa María de la Alameda, El Escorial, Tobar creek. 30TVK0095. 0,5 m2, water 6 cm, pH 6,5, T: 18ºC. 5. Madrid: El Escorial, Peralejo, Fuente Vieja creek. 30TVK0588. 0,5 m2, water 30 cm, pH 7,3, T: 14ºC. 6. Madrid: El Escorial, Zarzalejo, Castrejón lacunae. 30TVK0388. 0,3 m2, water 20 cm, pH 7, T: 20ºC. 7. Ávila: Navalperal de Pinares, Los Manchos, Puerto de la Lancha, peat bog. 30TUK8098. 0,5 m2, water 10 cm, pH 7, T: 15ºC. 8. Madrid: Becerril de la Sierra, Alto del Hilo, Angostura creek. 30TVL1608. 0,3 m2, water 10 cm, pH 7,2, T: 15ºC. 9. Ávila: Puerto Castilla, Circo del Barco. 30TTK7857. 4 m2. 10. Synthesized table.

[Pizarro & Rivas-Martínez]

Callitricho brutiae-Ranunculetum pseudofluitantis ass. nova hoc loco (3.4.1)

(Ranunculion fluitantis, Potametalia, Potametea)

Typus associatio: Table 19, rel. 1 [Avila: San Martín del Pimpollar, Venta Rasquilla, Alberche river, 30TUK2871. 1280 m, 0.5 m2, water 20 cm, pH 7, T 20º ].

Characteristic species: Callitriche brutia (terr.), Callitriche stagnalis (terr.), Ranunculus pseudofluitans.

Diagnosis: Aquatic batrachid oligotrophic neutral to acidophilous community of moving or running water characterized by Ranunculus pseudofluitans, spread from meso- to supramediterranean and meso-supratemperate in Western Mediterranean and Cantabrian-Atlantic Iberian Peninsula.

Table 19

3.4.1 Callitricho brutiae-Ranunculetum pseudofluitantis
(Ranunculion fluitantis, Potametalia, Potametea)

Altitude (1=10m)128116871149149123106118142107
Number of species33344445574
Ordinal number1*234567891011
Characteristic species:
Ranunculus pseudofluitans4543553555V
Callitriche brutia3124234212V
Callitriche stagnalis+..+...3..II
Ranunculus peltatus....1+....II
Myriophyllum alterniflorum......2...I
Companion species:
Oenanthe crocata...+..+.1.II
Glyceria declinata....+..21.II
Lemna minor.+.......+II
Veronica anagallis-aquatica.....+...1II

Other species. Companion species: Veronica beccabunga + in 3. Potamogeton polygonifolius + in 8. Juncus bulbosus 1 in 9. Apium nodiflorum +, Peplis portula +, Rorippa nasturtium-aquaticum + in 10.

Localities: 1. Holotypus ass. Ávila: Sierra de Gredos, San Martín del Pimpollar, Venta de Rasquilla, Alberche river. 30TUK2871. 0,5 m2, water 20 cm, pH 7, T: 20ºC. 2. Madrid: Santa María de la Alameda, Aceña river. 30TUK9594. 1 m2, pH: 7, T: 20ºC. 3. Ávila: Hoyo de Pinares, Posadas, Sotillo creek. 30TUK8486. 0,5 m2, water 20 cm, pH 6,8, T: 20ºC. 4. Ávila: Puerto Castilla, Aravalle. 30TTK7764. 5. Ávila: Albornos, Arevalillo river. 30TVK0588. 0,5 m2, water 30 cm, pH 7, T: 20ºC. 6. Cáceres: Jaraicejo, Miravete pass, De la Vid creek. 30STJ6296. 0,5 m2, water 35 cm, pH 7, T: 20ºC. 7. Ávila: Solana de Ávila, Garganta de la Solana. 30TTK7465. 8. Ávila: Tormellas, Garganta de los Caballeros. 30TTK8665. 9. Ávila: Puerto Castilla, Aravalle. 30TTK7662. 10. Ávila: Navalperal de Pinares, Casa Espino Polo, Pradomolino creek. 30TUK8097. 0,3 m2, water 15 cm, pH 7, T: 15ºC. 11. Synthesized table.

[Pizarro & Rivas-Martínez]

Callitricho stagnalis-Ranunculetum saniculifolii Galán in A.V. Pérez, Galán, P. Navas, D. Navas, Y. Gil & Cabezudo in Acta Bot. Malacitana 24: 160, tb. 11, rel. 1-18. 1999 (3.3.4)

[Ranunculetum saniculifolii Pizarrro & Melendo in Itinera Geobot. 14: 18. 2001 (3.3.8) (art. 2b)]
(Ranunculion aquatilis, Potametalia, Potametea)

Typus associatio: Acta Bot. Malacitana 24: 162, tb. 11, rel. 16. 1999 [Cádiz: Alcalá de los Gazules, Altos de Majada Escobar; running waters].

Characteristic species: Ranunculus saniculifolius.

Diagnosis: Thermo-mesomediterranean Western Mediterranean aquatic batrachid community, growing on meso-eutrophic neutral standing or slowly moving shallow waters, characterized by Ranunculus saniculifolius.

Table 20

3.3.4 Callitricho stagnalis-Ranunculetum saniculifolii
(Ranunculion aquatilis, Potametalia, Potametea)

Altitude (1=10m)177533404219674442
Number of species4644566106
Ordinal number123456789
Characteristic species:
Ranunculus saniculifolius55455455V
Callitriche brutia..421313IV
Callitriche lusitanica132....1III
Callitriche stagnalis2...3.3.II
Ranunculus penicillatus.+.....+II
Myriophyllum alterniflorum...+...+II
Companion species:
Lemna minor...++++1III
Glyceria declinata.+1.+..1III
Peplis portula+....1.1II

Other species. Companion species: Lemna gibba 1 in 2. Juncus bufonius +, Juncus capitatus + in 6. Eleocharis palustris +, Montia amporitana + in 7. Azolla caroliniana + in 8.

Localities: 1. Sevilla: La Luisiana, 0,3 m2, 15 cm deep, pH 7,2, T: 19ºC. 30STG7855. 2. Salamanca: Valdefuentes de Sangusín, La Vega, Sangusín river, Béjar, 0,5 m2, 20 cm deep, pH 7, T: 19ºC. 30TTK5980. 3. Cáceres: Villamesías, Búrdalo river, 0,5 m2. 30STJ54. 4. Cáceres: Serradilla, Dehesas de Zahurdilla, 0,3 m2. 30SQE41. 5. Toledo: Torrico, La Canaleja, Huerta creek. 30SUK0909. 6. Badajoz: Between Badajoz and Mérida, N-V, km 378, Guadajira creek, 0,5 m2, 18 cm deep, pH 7,5, T: 18ºC. 30SQD00. 7. Portugal, Beira Alta: Guarda, Pinzio, Cabras creek, 0,5 m2, 15 cm deep, pH 6,5, T: 16ºC. 29TPE6696. 8. Cáceres: Venta Magasca, c. Trujillo, Magasca river, 0,5 m2, 20 cm deep, pH 7, T: 16ºC. 30STJ5167. 9. Synthesized table.

[Pizarro, Melendo & Rivas-Martínez]

Callitricho lusitanicae-Ranunculetum penicillati ass. nova hoc loco (3.4.2)

[Callitricho lusitanicae-Ranunculetum penicillati Pizarro in Lazaroa 15: 92. 1995 (art. 3b)]
(Ranunculion fluitantis, Potametalia, Potametea)

Typus associatio: Table 21, rel. 1 [Avila: Hoyo de Pinares, Sotillo river, 30TUK8486. 850 m, 1 m2, water 15 cm, pH 7, T 19ºC].

Characteristic species: Callitriche lusitanica, Ranunculus penicillatus.

Diagnosis: Thermo-mesomediterranean Western Mediterranean even spread into mesotemperate Cantabrian-Atlantic aquatic batrachid community, growing on meso-eutrophic neutral and acidophilous running or slowly moving shallow water, characterized by Callitriche lusitanica and Ranunculus penicillatus.

Table 21

3.4.2 Callitricho lusitanicae-Ranunculetum penicillati
(Ranunculion fluitantis, Potametalia, Potametea)

Altitude (1=10m)8565765565417467498766
Number of species23344445564
Ordinal number1*234567891011
Characteristic species:
Callitriche lusitanica5131235521V
Ranunculus penicillatus4555553435V
Callitriche stagnalis...+1..111III
Callitriche brutia.+...+.1..II
Myriophyllum alterniflorum.....2....I
Potamogeton berchtoldii.........2I
Ranunculus pseudofluitans.........+I
Companion species:
Lemna minor...+...121III
Lemna gibba..1...+...II

Other species. Companion species: Peplis portula + in 5. Alisma plantago-aquatica + in 7. Veronica anagallis-aquatica + in 9.

Localities: 1. Holotypus ass. Ávila: Hoyo de Pinares, Sotillo river. 30TUK8486. 1 m2, water 15 cm, pH 7, T: 19ºC. 2. Madrid: Villanueva del Pardillo, Aulencia river. 30TVK18. 0,5 m2, water 20 cm, pH 7,2, T: 14ºC. 3. Salamanca: Valdefuentes de Sangusín, La Vega, Sangusín river, c. Béjar. 30TTK5980. 0,5 m2, water 20 cm, pH 7, T: 16ºC. 4. Madrid: Navalagamella, Cerro Alarcón, Perales river. 30TVK0776. 0,3 m2, water 40 cm, pH 7,3, T: 14ºC. 5. Ávila: Sotillo de la Adrada, Tiétar river. 30TUK66. 0,3 m2, water 30 cm, pH 7,1, T: 21ºC. 6.Cáceres: Trujillo, Venta de Magasca, Magasca river. 30STJ5167. 0,5 m2, water 35 cm, pH 7,1, T: 17º. 7. Salamanca: Fuentes de Oñoro, Berrocal creek. 0,5 m2, water 18 cm, pH 6,8, T: 16ºC. 8. Beira Alta: Guarda, Pinzio, Cabras creek. 29TPE6696. 0,5 m2, water 15 cm, pH 6,7, T: 15ºC. 9. Madrid: Navalagamella, los Molinillos, Yunta creek. 30TVK0270. 0,5 m2, water 30 cm, pH 7,1, T: 22ºC. 10. Madrid: Fresnedillas, Moraleja creek. 30TVK0184. 0,3 m2, water 5 cm, pH 7, T: 16ºC. 11. Synthesized table.


Calluno-Pinetum ibericae (Vigo 1968) nom. nov. hoc loco (74.4.3)

[Deschampsio-Pinetum valentinum Vigo in Inst. Estud. Catalans (Arx. Secc. Ciencies) 37: 146, tb. 10. 1968 p.p. (art. 34, 39), Luzulo-Quercetum pyrenaicae deschampsio-pinetosum ibericae Rivas-Martínez & G. López in G. López in Anales Inst. Bot. Cavanilles 33: 59, tb. 17. 1976]
(Avenello ibericae-Pinion ibericae, Junipero-Pinetalia, Junipero-Pinetea)

Typus associatio: Vigo in Inst. Estud. Catalans (Arx. Secc. Ciencies) 37: 146, tb. 10, rel. 1, lectotypus hoc loco. 1968 [Castellón: Vistabella del Maestrat, Los Espales. 1400 m, N, 35º]. Characteristic species: 5 Pinus sylvestris var. iberica (sub. Pinus sylvestris), 5 Vaccinium myrtillus, 2 Avenella iberica (sub. Deschampsia flexuosa), 1 Juniperus communis, + Festuca durandoi. Shadow forested species: 2 Hylocomium triquetrum, 1 Lathyrus linifolius, + Amelanchier ovalis, + Cephalanthera rubra, + Crataegus monogyna, + Dicranum scoparium, + Geum sylvaticum, + Hepatica nobilis, + Hieracium murorum, + Solidago virgaurea, + Viola reichenbachiana. Companion species: 2 Avenula sulcata, 2 Calluna vulgaris, 2 Nardus stricta, 1 Cruciata glabra, + Aira caryophyllea, + Anthoxanthum odoratum, + Betonica officinalis, + Carlina vulgaris, + Jasione montana, + Lotus corniculatus, + Luzula campestris.

Characteristic species (territorials): Avenella iberica, Calluna vulgaris, Nardus stricta, Juniperus communis var. intermedia, Pinus sylvestris var. iberica, Vaccinium myrtillus.

Diagnosis: Oroiberian upper supra and lower orotemperate submediterranean Maestrazgo and Universales Mountains mostly primary Pinus silvestris var. iberica micro and mesoforests, growing on siliceous rocks in strongly acid ranker, cambisol or planosols, often with circumscribe stagnic properties.

[Rivas-Martínez & J.A. Molina]

Campanulo herminii-Festucetum rivularis ass. nova hoc loco (60.4.5)

[Aulacomnio-Festucetum rivularis Rivas-Martínez in Anales Inst. Bot. Cavanilles 21(1): 6. 1964 (art. 3b)]
(Campanulo-Nardion, Nardetalia, Nardetea)

Typus associatio: Table 22, rel. 3 [Madrid: Sierra de Guadarrama, Pinilla del Valle, El Nevero, Hoyos de Pinilla creek. 30TVL2736. 1950 m, 6 m2 ].

Characteristic species (territorial): Festuca rivularis.

Diagnosis: Mat-grass swards characterised by the geniculated fescue Festuca rivularis, growing on peaty soils bordering springs and rivulets subjected to long periods of snow cover and to temporary inundations by thaw, running and oxygenated water. These chionophilous and rheophilous mat-grasslands are known from the high mountains of the Iberian Central System (Estrelensean, Bejaran-Gredensean and Guadarramean Sectors), where they appear in the (upper supra) oro-cryorotemperate submediterranean belts, but they also exist with some differences in the Orensan-Sanabriensean Sector and in the siliceous massifs of the Orocantabric Subprovince.

Table 22

60.4.5 Campanulo herminii-Festucetum rivularis
(Campanulo-Nardion, Nardetalia, Nardetea strictae)

Altitude (1=10m)162207195215210226196206212202203
Number of species58781178109118
Ordinal number123*4567891011
Characteristic species:
Festuca rivularis5433333344V
Nardus stricta1133332311V
Campanula herminii..2112.212IV
Festuca iberica+.+......1II
Deschampsia gredensis.....2.1..II
Companion species:
Anthoxanthum odoratum1...1...21III
Stellaria alsine.1..1.1+..III
Aulacomnium palustre.2...2..22III
Agrostis castellana1.1.+.....II
Veronica langei....1.++..II

Other species. Characteristic species: Potentilla erecta + in 2. Jasione gredensis 1, Pedicularis sylvatica + in 4. Juncus squarrosus 1 in 5. Narcissus nivalis 1, Jasione carpetana + in 6. Carex ovalis 1, Plantago penyalarensis + in 7. Poa legionensis + in 8. Ranunculus cacuminalis 1 in 10. Companion species: Bryophyta 3 in 4, 1 in 7, + in 8. Carex iberica 1 in 2, 2 in 3. Viola juressi 1 in 2, 2 in 9. Sagina nevadensis + in 3 and 10. Leontodon bourgaeanus 2 in 9, 1 in 10. Galium rivulare 1 in 9 and 10. Philonotis fontana 1 in 2. Epilobium palustre +, Lotus glareosus + in 4. Carex reuteriana +, Euphrasia hirtella +, Juncus effusus + in 5. Poa nemoralis + in 7. Sedum melanantherum 2, Chenopodium bonus-henricus + in 8. Saxifraga alpigena + in 9. Agrostis capillaris 1 in 10.

Localities: 1. Madrid: Sierra de Guadarrama, Rascafría, Puerto de Cotos, Guarramillas creek. 30TVL2019. 4 m2. 2. Madrid: Sierra de Guadarrama, Rascafría, Laguna de Peñalara. 30TVL1921. 5 m2. 3. Holotypus ass. Madrid: Sierra de Guadarrama, Pinilla del Valle, El Nevero, Hoyos de Pinilla creek. 30TVL2736. 6 m2. 4. Cáceres: Sierra de Gredos, Sierra Llana, Villanueva de la Vera, Puerto de Peones. 30TTK933587. 6 m2. 5. Ávila: Sierra de Gredos, Navalperal de Tormes, Morezón. 30TUK0859. 4 m2. 6. Ávila: Sierra de Gredos, Zapardiel de la Ribera, Cinco Lagunas. 30TUK0460. 10 m2. 7. Salamanca: Sierra de Béjar, Candelario. 30TTK683684. 4m2. 8. Salamanca: Sierra de Béjar, Candelario, El Quemal. 30TTK684680. 6 m2. 9. Madrid: Sierra de Guadarrama, Rascafría, Circo de Peñalara. 30TVL1921. 4 m2. 10. Madrid: Sierra de Guadarrama, Rascafría, Laguna de Peñalara. 30TVL1921. 5 m2. 11. Synthesized Table.

[Rivas-Martínez, Fernández-González, Sánchez-Mata & Sardinero]

Cardamino hirsutae-Geranietea purpurei (Rivas-Martínez, Fernández-González & Loidi 1999) classis nova, stat. nov. hoc loco (41)

[Geranio purpurei-Cardaminenea hirsutae Rivas-Martínez, Fernández-González & Loidi in Itinera Geobotanica 13: 384. 1999 (nomencl. syn.), Geranio purpurei-Cardaminetea hirsutae Rivas-Martínez, Fernández-González & Loidi 2001 classis nova in Itinera Geobot. 14: 95. 2001 (art. 3b, 3k)]

Typus classis: Geranio-Cardaminetalia hirsutae Brullo in Brullo & Marcenò in Coll. Phytosociol. 12: 73. 1985.

Characteristic species: Anthriscus caucalis, Cardamine hirsuta, Centranthus calcitrapae, Geranium dissectum, Geranium purpureum, Geranium rotundifolium, Ranunculus parviflorus, Torilis heterophylla, Torilis leptophylla, Torilis neglecta, Torilis nodosa, Veronica cymbalaria.

Diagnosis: Therophytic summer ephemeral shaded subnitrophilous thermo to supramediterranean oceanic and infra to mesotemperate submediterranean oceanic upper semiarid to humid communities, growing at the edges of woodlands, thickets and shaded walls, in Holarctic South Europe and North Africa.

[Rivas-Martínez, Fernández-González & Loidi]

Caricetum camposii-paniculatae ass. nova hoc loco (12.4.2)

(Magnocaricion elatae, Magnocaricetalia, Phragmito-Magnocaricetea)

Typus associatio: Table 23, rel. 3 [Granada: Sierra Nevada, Nigüelas, Fuente de Mailope. 2000 m, 10 m²].

Characteristic species (territorials): Carex camposii, Carex paniculata.

Diagnosis: Association characterized by the Eurosiberian and east Oroiberian element Carex paniculata subsp. paniculata, accompanied by the Nevadensian endemic Carex camposii. In Sierra Nevada (Nevadensian Sector) it is developed on hygroturbose soils always flooded in the supra and lower oromediterranean subhumid bioclimatic belts. Sometimes, it can be in contact with the shepherded rushy meadows belonging to the Nevadensian association Junco effusi-Caricetum camposii (Juncion acutiflori).

Table 23

12.4.2 Caricetum camposii-paniculatae
(Magnocaricion, Magnocaricetalia, Phragmito-Magnocaricetea)

Altitude (1=10m)209173200194
Number of species89109
Ordinal number123*4
Characteristic species:
Carex paniculata5453
Carex camposii1123
Veronica beccabunga.++2
Companion species:
Holcus lanatus2113
Mentha longifolia+113
Festuca iberica11+3
Juncus inflexus.2+2
Ranunculus granatensis.+12

Other species. Companion species: Juncus effusus 1, Stellaria alsine 1, Epilobium parviflorum + in 1. Juncus articulatus 1 in 2. Myosotis teresiana 1 in 3.

Localities: 1. Granada: Sierra Nevada, Puerto de la Ragua. 10 m2. 2. Granada: Sierra Nevada, Dúrcal, Barranco de la Paranza. 8 m2. 3. Holotypus ass. Granada: Sierra Nevada, Nigüelas, Fuente de Mailope, 10 m2. 4. Synthesized table.

[Molero, J. López & Rivas-Martínez]

Caricetum echinato-nigrae (Rivas-Martínez 1964) nom. nov. hoc loco (14.2.2)

[Caricetum carpetanae Rivas-Martínez in Anales Inst. Bot. Cavanilles 21(1): 91, tb. 12. 1964 (art. 43), Caricetum nigrae Rivas-Martínez 1964 corr., non Caricetum fuscae Br.-Bl., Cévennes Mér. Ét. Phytogeogr.: 31. 1915 (Caricetum nigrae Br.-Bl. 1915 nom. mut.)]

(Caricion nigrae, Caricetalia nigrae, Scheuchzerio-Caricetea nigrae)

Typus associatio: Rivas-Martínez in Anales Inst. Bot. Cavanilles 21(1): 91, tb. 12, rel. 2 (lectotypus hoc loco) [Spain, Sierra de Guadarrama, Madrid: Southern slope of Peñalara, 2200 m, SE, 4 m2]. Characteristic species: 3 Carex nigra (sub. Carex fusca subsp. carpetana), 2 Carex echinata, 2 Viola palustris subsp. juresii (sub. Viola palustris), 1 Agrostis canina var. stolonifera. Companion species: 2 Aulacomnium palustre, 2 Selinum pyrenaeum, 2 Sphagnum inundatum, 1 Sagina nevadensis (sub. Sagina saginoides var. glandulosa), + Drosera rotundifolia, + Festuca rivularis (sub. Festuca rubra var. rivularis), + Juncus squarrosus (sub. Juncus squarrosus subsp. ellmanii), + Nardus stricta.

Characteristic species (territorials): Carex echinata, Carex nigra, Drosera rotundifolia, Viola palustris subsp. juresii.

Taxonomic correction: Carex fusca subsp. carpetana (C. Vicioso) Rivas Mart. nom. illeg. (Carex nigra subsp. iberica Rivas Mart.) should be Carex nigra (L.) Reichard

Distribution: Carpetan, Orensan-Sanabriensean and Orocantabric oligotrophic fen community.


Carici asturicae-Callunetum vulgaris ass. nova hoc loco (61.4.2)

(Daboecion cantabricae, Ulicetalia minoris, Calluno-Ulicetea)

Typus associatio: Table 24, rel. 2 [Asturias: Caso, Pico Torres. 30TUN07. 1800 m, 100 m²].

Characteristic species (territorials): Calluna vulgaris, Carex asturica, Carex pilulifera, Thymelaea dendrobryum, Hypericum burseri, Vaccinium myrtillus.

Diagnosis: Close thicket with preponderant nanophanerophytes and some herbaceous plants colonizing deep soils developed from siliceous rocks (slates, sandstones or quartzites). These endemic Orocantabric communities are differentiated by the Orocantabric-Iberian endemics Carex asturica and Thymelaea dendrobryum and have their optimum in the lower orotemperate horizon and in the upper supratemperate. They are in contact with the Nardus pastures of the Campanulo herminii-Nardion strictae and the broom communities of the Carici asturicae-Genistetum obtusirameae and Cytiso oromediterranei-Genistetum obtusirameae.

Table 24

61.4.2 Carici asturicae-Callunetum vulgaris
(Daboecion cantabricae, Ulicetalia minoris, Calluno-Ulicetea)

Altitude (1=10 m.)175180164179187166178195178165162159187165172171180166189174
Number of species18281772720922152427261216311216221921
Ordinal number12*34567891011121314151617181920
Characteristic species:
Calluna vulgaris5445455455445543454V
Vaccinium myrtillus223+12..23231121221V
Avenula lodunensis.11.111111.1+.11111V
Carex asturica.+.1.++.+.1.+1+2111IV
Thymelaea dendrobryum11.......++1+21.11+IV
Hypericum burseri11..1...+1+1..1.+++IV
Carex pilulifera+.+.1+.1+111.....+.IV
Pterospartum cantabricum............12++3++III
Genista pilosa.1..+...1.+.......2II
Daboecia cantabrica............+++.1..II
Euphorbia polygalifolia....2..11..........II
Companion species:
Nardus stricta113+22121212..22122V
Avenella flexuosa1+
Potentilla erecta+11..1.+.111..1.++.IV
Hieracium pilosella11.....1.+1+..+.++1IV
Festuca rubra.11.1.+11.11..1..1.IV
Agrostis capillaris1+1....1112..+1....III
Jasione carpetana+...++.1+..+.+...++III
Gentiana lutea.1+.+..+.+.+..+.++.III
Meum athamanticum.+.....1.+++..+..+.III
Genista obtusiramea.....+.+++.+..1...+III
Solidago virgaurea1...++.+.+.......+.II
Veronica officinalis.3..1..1..1...+...1II
Juniperus alpina.+...+++.+.1.......II
Galium saxatile..1..+...++...+.1..II
Erica arborea.....1...+.+.+...++II

Other species. Characteristics species: Pseudarrhenatherum longifolium + in 1. Erica vagans 1, Erica cinerea +, Serratula tinctoria +, Ulex cantabricus + in 11. Erica aragonensis + in 18. Companion species: Galium verum 1 in 1, + in 2, 5, 12 and 14. Anthoxanthum odoratum + in 2, 5, 10 and 15, 1 in 8. Cytisus oromediterraneus + in 6, 10, 13, 14 and 18. Agrostis durieui + in 7, 13, 14, 16 and 19. Homogyne cantabrica 1 in 1 and 3, + in 2 and 12. Luzula nutans + in 1 and 10, 1 in 3 and 18. Cruciata glabra 1 in 1, + in 8, 12 and 15. Plantago alpina + in 1, 5, 11 and 15. Stachys officinalis + in 2, 11 and 12, 1 in 15. Rumex angiocarpus + in 4, 11 and 19, 1 in 16. Leontodon cantabricus + in 5, 6, 10 and 14. Thesium pyrenaicum + in 5, 6, 15 and 18. Succisa pratensis + in 2, 6 and 15. Cytisus cantabricus + in 2 and 17, 1 in 15. Thymus britannicus + in 8, 11 and 15. Teesdaliopsis conferta + in 8, 13 and 14. Rosa pendulina 1 in 2, + in 15. Lotus corniculatus + in 2 and 19. Festuca eskia + in 5, 1 in 8. Erica tetralix 2 in 12, + in 13. Conopodium pyrenaeum +, Silene nutans + in 1. Astrantia major +, Crocus nudiflorus +, Geranium sylvaticum +, Stellaria holostea + in 2. Blechnum spicant +, Daphne laureola +, Euphorbia hyberna +, Polygala serpyllifolia + in 3. Juncus squarrosus + in 4. Carex caryophyllea 1, Achillea millefolium +, Alchemilla saxatilis +, Campanula scheuchzeri +, Linaria supina +, Omalotheca sylvatica +, Silene ciliata +, Trifolium alpinum + in 5. Anemone nemorosa 1, Diphasiastrum alpinum + in 6. Luzula caespitosa + in 7. Merendera montana + in 8. Luzula multiflora + in 9. Pinus sylvestris var. Iberica +, Silene nutans + in 10. Danthonia decumbens 1, Plantago media +, Polygala vulgaris + in 11. Daphne laureola +, Euphorbia hyberna +, Parnassia palustris +, Prunella vulgaris + in 12. Digitalis purpurea + in 14. Crocus nudiflorus +, Hypochoeris radicata + in 15. Hypochoeris radicata +, Poa annua +, Sedum brevifolium + in 16. Polygala serpyllifolia + in 17. Cytisus scoparius + in 19.

Localities: 1. Asturias: Caso/León: Puebla de Lillo, Peña de Viento-Pico Páramo. 30TUN17. 100 m². 2. Holotypus ass. Asturias: Caso, Pico Torres. 30TUN07. 100 m2. 3. Asturias: Lena, Cueto Negro. 30TTN76. 100 m². 4. Asturias: Lena/León: Villamanín, Alto de la Carbazosa. 30TTN76. 100 m². 5. Palencia: Brañosera, El Golobar-Valdecebollas. 30TUN85. 200 m². 6. León: Boca de Huérgano, Puerto de San Glorio. 30TUN56. 100 m². 7. Palencia: Cervera de Pisuerga, Pozo del Curavacas. 30TUN66. 100 m². 8. León: Boca de Huérgano/Cantabria: Camaleño, Puertos de Riofrío, Peña Prieta-Cubil del Can. 30TUN56. 200 m². 9. Cantabria: Camaleño, Alto de Riofrío. 30TUN66. 100 m². 10. León: Maraña, Puerto de las Señales-Pico del Lago del Pinar. 30TUN16. 200 m². 11. Asturias: Aller, Pico de Palmían-Peña Redonda. 30TTN97. 200 m². 12. Asturias: Aller/León: Valdelugueros: Pico de la Loma-Pico Toneo. 30TUN06. 200 m². 13. Asturias: Caso/León: Maraña, Remelende. 30TUN17. 100 m². 14. Asturias: Caso/León: Puebla de Lillo, Peña del Viento-Pico Páramo. 30TUN17. 100 m². 15. Asturias: Caso, Pico Torres. 30TUN07. 100 m². 16. Asturias: Lena, Cueto Negro. 30TTN76. 100 m². 17. Asturias: Lena/León: Villamanín, Alto de la Carbazosa. 30TTN76. 100 m². 18. León: Puebla de Lillo, Circo de Cebolledo. 30TUN76. 200 m². 19. León: San Emiliano, Alto de la Farrapona-Peña Redonda. 29TQH36. 200 m². 20. Synthesized table.

[Bueno & F. Prieto]